Charles spearman general intelligence. Charles Spearman: Theory of Intelligence & Overview 2022-10-24

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Charles Spearman was an English psychologist who is best known for his work on intelligence and statistical methods. He is credited with the development of the concept of "general intelligence," also known as the g factor.

Spearman's work on intelligence began in the late 19th century, when he was studying the performance of soldiers in the British army. He noticed that some soldiers seemed to excel in all areas of training, while others struggled in multiple areas. This led him to believe that there might be a general factor that underlies all intellectual abilities, which he referred to as the g factor.

To test this hypothesis, Spearman conducted a series of statistical analyses on data from intelligence tests. He found that there was a strong correlation between scores on different tests, suggesting that there was indeed a general factor that influenced performance across a variety of tasks. This g factor was later identified as being closely related to cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, and abstract reasoning.

Spearman's work on the g factor had a significant impact on the field of psychology, and it remains a central concept in the study of intelligence. However, it has also been the subject of controversy, with some researchers arguing that it oversimplifies the complexity of intelligence and fails to account for cultural and environmental influences on cognitive abilities.

Despite these criticisms, Spearman's concept of general intelligence continues to be an important theoretical framework for understanding the nature of intellectual abilities. It has contributed to our understanding of how intelligence is related to other psychological constructs such as personality and motivation, and it has informed the development of modern intelligence tests and educational interventions.

In conclusion, Charles Spearman's concept of general intelligence has had a lasting impact on the field of psychology and continues to be a valuable tool for understanding the nature of intellectual abilities.

Chapter 8 Flashcards

charles spearman general intelligence

He felt it was extremely important to understand how and why processes of the brain and body contributed to the development, decline, strength, or weakness of general intelligence. Brain size has long been known to be correlated with g. As a point of fact, some modern researchers still use Spearman's theories, although in modified and updated forms. He showed exceptional talent and capability to become a psychologist since his inception. For example, does a healthy BMI tend to correlate to general intelligence? Several researchers have argued that even if g was replaced by a model with several intelligences this would change the situation less than some may expect. Alternatives and Criticisms The existence of a single quantifiable factor for human intelligence has been hotly debated ever since Spearman proposed it. It is a guide or a reference tool to help people consider their options.

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Charles Spearman: Theory of Intelligence & Overview

charles spearman general intelligence

While in modern times not all psychologists agree with his conclusions, Spearman is still widely respected as a pioneer in the field of psychology. Yet because of his athleticism and consistent training, Bolt would still likely perform better than the average person dropped into a swimming pool and asked to compete. If the results from Test A were weakly correlated to the results from Test B, the researcher would see a graph like the middle image. Because of the former, Spearman is considered to be one of the founders of the psychological testing movement, and because of the latter, Spearman is also considered to be one of the founders of biopsychology and neurophysiology. For example, a study could use and be compared with various other similar intelligence measures.

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Spearman, C. (1904). General intelligence, objectively determired and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201

charles spearman general intelligence

Detterman and Daniel rediscovered this phenomenon in 1989. So he took it upon himself to examine both the assumptions and the mathematics of the Pearson Correlation. Ability differentiation hypothesis A number of researchers have suggested that the proportion of variation accounted for by g may not be uniform across all individuals within a population. The former refers to general intelligence while the latter refers to specific intelligence. The idea that general intelligence can be measured and classified for comparative purposes has often been challenged.

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Spearman Theory of Intelligence and What It Reveals

charles spearman general intelligence

However, our overall capacity for performance is governed by G. When Spearman went back through the data, he noticed that people who did well in one area of the factor analysis test would also score higher in all other areas as well compared to those who did not perform well in one area. Spearman described that there was a functional relationship between intelligence and Sensory Discriminatory Abilities. Some tests are visual, some are verbal, some tests only use of abstract-reasoning problems, and some tests concentrate on arithmetic, spatial imagery, reading, vocabulary, memory or general knowledge. Each intelligence would represent a specific ability that could be measured. Researchers are examining this theory and recreating it in modern research. He was the first to use mathematical methods to analyse and interpret the twisted human brain.

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What is the theory of general intelligence?

charles spearman general intelligence

Who is known as father of factor analysis? These seven abilities, according to Thurstone, were verbal comprehension as involved in the knowledge of vocabulary and in reading , verbal … What did Spearman conclude? Annals of Human Biology. He first joined the When Spearman was elected to the Dr. Today intelligence is usually understood as a hierarchy: smaller factors manifest in the ability to do highly specific tasks, but those factors can be arranged into broader intermediary categories which in turn are encompassed within the most general factor, g. I just missed out on entry to Mensa, with an IQ of 144 top 3% of the population on the cartell iii IQ test, So, IQ is not really the best way to ascertain whether a person will be successful, even if they have an high IQ. Although modern-day psychologists do not all agree on his theories, he is revered for being one of the earliest pioneer psychologists while working with ''The Father of Psychology'' Wilhelm Wundt at his laboratory in Germany.

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Spearman and the Theory of General Intelligence

charles spearman general intelligence

Whereas most psychologists believed that mental abilities were determined by various independent factors, Spearman concluded that general intelligence, g, was a single factor that was correlated with specific abilities, s, to varying degrees. This then is what the G term means, a score-factor and nothing more. This means that the G-factor can also be measured. Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science. Statistical Analysis and Correlation Francis Galton was a British polymath who defined correlation as the probability that two different sets of characteristics could in some lawful way vary together. This would help Spearman be able to identify specific types of intelligence. Though the specific number of s factors are unknown, a few have been relatively accepted: mechanical, spatial, logical, and arithmetical.

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Spearman's Bifactorial Theory of Intelligence

charles spearman general intelligence

The most common approach has been to divide individuals into multiple ability groups using an observable proxy for their general intellectual ability, and then to either compare the average interrelation among the subtests across the different groups, or to compare the proportion of variation accounted for by a single common factor, in the different groups. Spearman was quoted as saying ''Intelligence is the capacity of the organism to adjust itself to an increasingly complex environment. Retrieved 27 November 2022. Among them, we find mechanical, verbal, numerical, and spatial activities. His father was Alexander Spearman and his mother was Louisa Mainwaring. However, Charles Spearman was skeptical and invented his Spearman Rank Order Correlation statistical technique to replace Pearson's technique.

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Spearman's Theory of Intelligence

charles spearman general intelligence

His ideas were in 1938 criticized on paper by psychologist As time progressed, Spearman increasingly argued that g was not, from a psychological point of view, a single ability but composed of two very different abilities which normally worked closely together. At the end of the day, even after all of the statistics and equations, Spearman also noted that every person is a genius at something. Factor analysis techniques are not limited to producing single factors, and an analysis of human bodies might produce for example two major factors, such as height and girth. Spearman began to wonder if there was something wrong with the methods his colleagues were using to determine whether relationships existed or not. Spearman affirmed in 1923, with his bifactorial theory of intelligence, that the academic performance of some school-age children correlated with the results they obtained in some sensory tests that he himself chose and applied to them. The Spearman theory of intelligence was explained in mathematical terms by Guilford as well. Other factor analyses of the data are with different results are possible.

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Charles Spearman and his two

charles spearman general intelligence

He taught in Egypt and the United States as well. Charles Spearman's Road to Psychology Charles Spearman, who lived from 1863 to 1945, was an English psychologist who came to experimental psychology a bit late in life. This led him to believe that there was a predominant general ability factor of intelligence. These mechanisms support each other so that efficient operation of one of them makes efficient operation of the others more likely, thereby creating the positive correlations between intelligence tests. Under certain circumstances, Spearman wholeheartedly believed Pearson's technique underestimated the correlation that existed between two variables.

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Charles Spearman

charles spearman general intelligence

Another esteemed thinker by the name of Karl Pearson invented the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Although it was pretty impossible to do psychophysiological research in any definitive way given the medical expertise and equipment available in Spearman's day, his emphasis on the need for this type of research paved the way for modern biopsychology and neurophysiology. He found that a single common factor explained for the positive correlations among test. Historically, this has meant dampening the influence of group factors factors influencing certain groups of tests by testing as wide a range of mental tasks as possible. This is an argument still accepted in principle by many psychometricians. In this way the Pearson correlation coefficient between them is maximized. Charles Edward Spearman was born on September 10, 1863, in London, England.

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