Gigantism and dwarfism. Island gigantism 2022-10-03
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Utilitarianism is a moral theory that holds that the best action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or pleasure. It is a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral value of an action is determined by its consequences. Proponents of utilitarianism argue that it provides a clear and objective way to determine right and wrong actions, and that it is the most effective way to promote the overall well-being of society.
However, utilitarianism has been subject to criticism on several grounds. One criticism is that it is overly focused on the consequences of actions, and does not take into account the moral intentions or motives behind those actions. For example, under utilitarianism, it might be considered morally acceptable to deceive someone if doing so leads to a net increase in happiness. This ignores the importance of honesty and trust in human relationships, and could lead to a society in which people are constantly scheming to achieve their own ends at the expense of others.
Another criticism of utilitarianism is that it is difficult to measure and compare the happiness or pleasure of different individuals. How can we accurately compare the pleasure of one person's vacation with the pleasure of another person's job promotion? Utilitarianism also ignores the fact that people have different values and priorities, and what brings one person happiness may not bring happiness to another.
A third criticism of utilitarianism is that it ignores the inherent value of individual human beings. Under utilitarianism, the value of a person is determined solely by their ability to contribute to overall happiness. This could lead to the exploitation and mistreatment of certain individuals or groups if their happiness is deemed less important than that of others.
Finally, utilitarianism does not account for long-term consequences or the needs of future generations. An action that maximizes happiness in the present may have negative consequences for the future, such as environmental degradation or economic instability.
Overall, while utilitarianism provides a useful framework for evaluating the consequences of actions, it has significant limitations and is not a sufficient moral theory on its own. It is important to consider the intentions behind actions, the inherent value of human beings, and the long-term consequences of our actions in addition to the happiness they may bring in the present.
Island Gigantism and Dwarfism: Evolutionary “Island Rule” Confirmed
Image: Approximately 1,500 years ago, Madagascar was home to three dwarf species of hippopotamuses Hippopotamus madagascariensis that are now extinct. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology. The newly discovered small-statured human species was named Homo floresiensis after the Indonesian island where she was discovered. Growth hormone deficiency GHD , also known as dwarfism or pituitary dwarfism, is a condition caused by insufficient amounts of growth hormone in the body. This results in great height along with increased muscle and organ development. When you have too much growth hormone, your bones increase in size.
Gigantism and Dwarfism as Genetics or Medical Condition Free Essay Example
The first is a genetic mutation on chromosome 4 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 FGFR3. What possible hormonal imbalances might result in dwarfism or gigantism? What are the longer-term implications of gigantism?. Barrow Neurological Institute estimates there have been just On the other hand, acromegaly affects middle-aged adults. Variable Garypus titanius Critically Endangered Least Concern Labidura herculeana Extinct c. Thus, patients with larger prostates may achieve a greater benefit. How did this happen? This growth hormone has increased disposition in one binding site and a lowered disposition in the second binding site.
Differentiate between dwarfism and gigantism. [2 MARKS]
As a result, island predators tend to be smaller than their mainland counterparts. Gigantism and acromegaly are similar, but they also have notable differences. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 470, 30—39. A deficiency of growth hormone secretion before puberty by the end of which the synthesis of new bone tissue is complete results in pituitary dwarfism. With a few notable exceptions, even snakes tend to be smaller on islands.
Dwarfism and gigantism: Why island animals get either too big or too small
Stone implements were also discovered. Median size of mammals diminishes as land area increases; thus, in Madagascar, it is a tad over eight ounces, in Australia 7. The pituitary tumor cells secrete too much growth hormone GH , leading to many changes in the body. For whatever reason, animals that grow quite large on the mainland prefer to colonize islands, where dwarfism is the norm from one generation to the next. SSA's can decrease the growth hormone levels by blocking the excess production in the pituitary gland. What is a giant person? Dwarf subspecies of reindeer.
The presence of large prey When the prey is too big, an animal species will have to adapt. Dwarfism can be defined as a short height, that is the result of a genetic or medical condition. One of the earliest hypotheses put forth was to explain the surprising discovery of a relatively tiny human brain. The first instance of lump flare-ups will usually occur at or before age ten. The pituitary gland, also called the hypophysis, is a gland at the base of the brain that produces many different hormones. Any number of animals in the wild may become isolated from the rest of their species. This elephant has the ability to have additional children and pass on the mutation to them.
Overproduction of the growth hormone in middle aged adults causes acromegaly. During excavations in the Liang Bua cave on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003, fossils dating back around 18,000 years were found, suggesting the presence of a very small-bodied early dwarf human. The fossil of a penguin that was the size of a tiny person has been found among Moas. This condition is usually the result of a pituitary tumor. Affecting 1 in every 25,000 people, achondroplasia is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene FGFR3 , which is located on chromosome 4, causing abnormally short stature Schoenstadt. This phenomenon, however, is not a new occurrence.
Stereotactic irradiation may be used for gigantism or acromegaly. In situations where these drugs are not helpful, daily shots of pegvisomant might be used as well. What glands are involved in dwarfism? Estrogen replacement therapy usually continues throughout life until a woman reaches the average age of menopaus. However, the condition can be hard for parents to detect. When the pituitary gland overproduces the growth hormone a rare disorder known as Acromegaly or gigantism may develop. We avoid using tertiary references.
Acromegaly vs. Gigantism: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, More
Islands are home to unique flora, fauna, and people. For reasons unknown to doctors, children born with FOP often have deformed big toes. Retrieved 29 February 2020. But is human adaptability like this possible? This may lead to an abnormal increase in the height and bone growth. In general, skeletal growth is a complex process and can be disturbed in many ways. On the nearby Mexican mainland, Crotalus ruber is roughly twice the size of C. .
Gigantism: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options
Georgetown, Ascension Island: Ascension Island Government Conservation Department. Which gland is malfunctioning if a person has gigantism? The course of ossifying tissue will usually progress from the top of the body down, mirroring the formation of bones in a growing fetus. This is usually caused by a non-cancerous tumour in the pituitary gland called an adenoma. The pituitary tumor cells secrete too much growth hormone GH , leading to many changes in the body. But his paper was much longer—18 pages compared to Foster's two—and, against Foster's lone table, it offered numerous graphs, tables, and complex mathematical equations. An excess of growth hormone in children results in gigantism; these children grow to be over 7 ft 213 cm in height and have disproportionately long limbs. What factors encourage a species to alter its dimensions on islands? Growth hormone deficiency is a relatively common cause of proportionate dwarfism.
Which hormone is responsible for gigantism and dwarfism?
If the person has experienced any physical trauma might trigger episodes of inflammation and swelling that is followed by an increase in ossification in the area of injury. At what height is a person considered a giant? All changes proceed from that, yet all manner of other factors also come into play to decide whether its kind shrinks or grows in size. Are they just deformed examples of our own species, Homo sapiens? The lumps caused by FOP can appear suddenly and at random. And what about the inverse phenomenon— island gigantism? Judging from a close look at the two species, C. Results of an changed routine is from the fatigue and also causes weight gain because person is sleeping more, due to lack of energy.