Machiavelli and realism. Thomas Hobbes and Niccolo Machiavelli: A Comparison 2022-10-15
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Machiavelli: Realism Over Idealism Summary Essay Example
Machiavelli, whether or not you agree with him, is considered an intellectual giant. With Machiavelli, citizenship, liberty and republicanism form a body of interconnected principles implying popular government. Ultimately, I have highlighted and discussed a few key differences in the work of Hobbes and Machiavelli. The Arthashastra does not even mention land in its list of inheritable property. They forward certain large claims about human nature. This type of political realism serves to incorporate the concept that all humans are doing nothing more than seeking power through the formation of relationships, even if the formation of those relationships involves the potential to hurt the interests of one of the party members within the relationship itself. Perhaps even more pertinent is the fact that it is sometimes missed in the study of Machiavelli that he was propagating a system of government based on rules.
. When President Nixon organized the Watergate Scandal in 1973, the public had 3 no inclination that their leader was capable of such corrupt and unscrupulous means. This is what he did using witty tactics. In contrast, Machiavelli was a man of action; he worked, primarily, as a civil servant of the Florentine Republic. He analysed the way in which many people acted, and looked for the common trait in man in order to draw conclusions about human nature. It would allow us to be optimistic, and contain a false sense of protection thinking that everything would work out. Machiavelli agrees with Hobbes to some extent that people are generally self-interested, although their affection for others can be won and lost.
In The Prince, Machiavelli demonstrates how to obtain and keep political power. His most famous book, The Prince, was meant as a handbook for the Prince of Florence as he embarked on the business of ruling the city state and guiding its foreign policy in what was then a rather turbulent neighbourhood. In opposing Machiavellian realism, however, they do not embrace the designation "idealist" for themselves. This quote perfectly demonstrates Machiavellian realism. The ideal leader according to him is a person who derives authority from sheer force and the submission of his subjects.
Here is the key passage: "And many have imagined for themselves republics and principalities that no one has ever seen or known to be in reality. According to Codevilla: "Contemporary Western leaders have lost, along with the scruples of natural and divine law, the very will to kill enemies both foreign and domestic. While Chanakya, a brahmin, is firmly set in Hindu philosophy and sees the world through the spectacles of Hindu cosmology, Machiavelli describes the world through human nature, the ends both advocate being quite similar. Which is precisely the opposite of classical politics, which is also about a collective organization around and oriented to the good. The Center is supported by foundation, corporate and individual donors as well as by an endowment.
Practical Realism in an Unpredictable World: Machiavelli’s Treaties on Fortune • The Havok Journal
In that the Prince is the one figurehead of the state; his interests to keep power and order are directly tied to the interests of the state and the welfare of his citizens. Machiavelli is at great pains to demonstrate the careful balance a prince must maintain between being loved and feared. Allen suggests that the American founders made a unique contribution in the ongoing rethinking of the Western tradition, for they departed from both Plato and Machiavelli in their conviction that ordinary folks rather than Plato's best or Machiavelli's efficacious have just title to rule. The paper will further discuss the various ways in which both Machiavelli and Hobbes try to analyze and discuss the dictates of governing bodies and or institutions, sources of authority, religion, and ethics. That is now changing.
Machiavelli, needless to say, caused much debate among Europeans over his legacy—the authoritarian Machiavelli of the Prince, or the republican Machiavelli of the Discourses? Machiavelli was the inheritor of a tradition of humanism that dated back to the 14th century and was far from anti-Christian. This first appeared in The Havok Journal on September 8, 2021. This natural law or moral law, or divine law offers a transcendent standard by which to judge political life and, potentially, offers a principled ground for disobedience to authority. From this Machiavelli asserts that a number of traits are inherent in human nature. Chanakya also focuses in great detail upon strategy, formations, discipline, potential problems, payment, equipment, training, battalions and divisions, and other organisational factors in Books Two, Eight, and Nine of the Arthashastra.
Whereas it might tempt us to conclude they are parallel in their philosophies, this is not true; rather, there are some basic doctrines in which they actually agree. After this I compared and contrasted their views on morality and self-governance. Politics, to me, is the process by which one or more individuals works to utilize information obtained and knowledge gained for the purposes of attempting to gain or increase their power base. Those who followed in their wake Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, and Aquinas , although they found ways to adjust themselves to political power, did not relent on the essential point: namely, that there is a law higher than the laws of men. Chanakya uses Hindu cosmology to sanction the monarchy as the preferred system of government. Why is this absence significant? What is Plato's ideal republic? As Allen explains, "Washington identified a transcendent interest that would become the permanent basis of opinion in the republic. Witness the closing lines of Lincoln's Cooper Union Address: "Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith, let us, to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it"; or the passage from Churchill's Gathering Storm, discussing the West's belated guarantee of Poland: "Still, if you will not fight for the right when you can easily win without bloodshed; if you will not fight when your victory will be sure and not too costly; you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a precarious chance of survival.
In contrast, to this logically structured scientific method, Machiavelli was a practical man: he observed people for what they were and the way they actually behaved rather than creating a hypothetical position in order to explain reality. Europe had enough problems of the present and historical baggage of the past to deal with before it could start preaching to others. I do not mean to say by this, however, that arms and force are never to be employed, but that they should be reserved as the last resort when other means fail. This discussion has clearly and vividly shown that the ideas of two people and from two different generations, who hold divergent views in numerous areas, also seem to agree on others. The Prince tells opportunistic leaders what to do, but also tells the rest of us what to look out for.
Florence, and other cities like it, were transforming from feudal fiefdoms into princely states and this was neither an easy nor a simple process—neither internally nor in the process of the conduct of their foreign policy. They are more concerned with the security of the state against external threats and internal harmony. Seconding that judgment, Codevilla avers that Mao, Stalin, and Hitler are "paradigms of Machiavelli's irreligious, single-minded founders" and wonders if the tyrannies of the twentieth century would cause even Machiavelli to repent of his counsel to wickedness. In truth, there never was any remarkable lawgiver amongst any people who did not resort to divine authority, as otherwise his laws would not have been accepted by the people; for there are many good laws, the importance of which is known to the sagacious lawgiver, but the reasons for which are not sufficiently evident to enable him to persuade others to submit to them; and therefore do wise men, for the purpose of removing this difficulty, resort to divine authority. It is obvious that Machiavelli sees the importance of fiscal health for he considers the problems of paying a large standing army.
Views on Political Realism of Machiavelli and Hobbes
In the weak-willed, Machiavellian necessity becomes a kind of fatalism. Machiavelli entered the political service of his native Florence by the time he was 29. Furthermore, despite other works on politics and statecraft, Machiavelli represents, in the West, the first clear break with idealism and morality, and is the first to suggest that the root of state power is force. For Chanakya, economics was central to the well-being of the state. Indologists date the text from as early as the fourth century before the Common Era to the third after.