# Tyack and cuban. What We've Forgotten About School Reform: Courtesy of Messrs. Tyack, Cuban, and Payne (Opinion) 2022-10-23

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The golden ratio, also known as the golden section or the divine proportion, is a mathematical concept that has captivated the minds of artists, architects, and mathematicians for centuries. The ratio, denoted by the Greek letter phi (Ï†), is approximately equal to 1.618 and is found in many natural and man-made objects.

The golden ratio can be described as the ratio of the smaller part of a whole to the larger part, or the ratio of the larger part to the whole. In mathematical terms, this can be expressed as a+b is to a as a is to b, or a/b = (a+b)/a.

One of the earliest known references to the golden ratio can be found in the writings of the ancient Greeks. The mathematician Euclid described the golden ratio as "the most beautiful of all proportions" in his work "Elements." The golden ratio also appears in the work of the ancient Greek sculptor Phidias, who used it to create aesthetically pleasing works of art.

The golden ratio has been used throughout history in a variety of contexts. In art, the golden ratio has been used to create compositions that are aesthetically pleasing to the eye. Architects have used the golden ratio to design buildings that are harmonious and pleasing to look at. The golden ratio has also been used in the design of websites and other digital media, as it is thought to be aesthetically pleasing to the human eye.

One of the most famous examples of the use of the golden ratio can be found in the design of the Parthenon in Athens. The Parthenon is considered to be a prime example of classical architecture, and its design incorporates the golden ratio in many ways. The length and width of the temple, as well as the height of the columns, all follow the golden ratio.

The golden ratio has also been found to occur in nature. The spiral patterns found in seashells and pinecones, for example, are believed to be based on the golden ratio. The human body also exhibits the golden ratio, with the ratio of the length of the hand to the length of the arm being approximately equal to the golden ratio.

Despite its widespread use and recognition, the golden ratio has also been the subject of some controversy. Some have argued that the golden ratio is overrated and that its importance has been exaggerated. Others have claimed that the golden ratio is not as common in nature as some believe.

In conclusion, the golden ratio is a mathematical concept that has fascinated people for centuries. It has been used in art, architecture, and design to create aesthetically pleasing compositions and has been found in a variety of natural objects. While it has been the subject of some controversy, the golden ratio remains an important and widely recognized concept.

## Tyack, D., & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward Utopia A Century of Public School Reform. Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.

In Tinkering toward Utopia 1995 , Tyack and Cuban correctly argue that the fundamental nature of public schooling has not changed in the 20th century. Progressive education had to formulate experiences that were interesting and enjoyable, that also "promote having desirable future experiences" Dewey, p. But lastly are schools even necessary, should students even have to come to school even though everything is on the computer with limited teacher interaction? Why have Americans come to believe that schooling has regressed? In another, though, disorder means a measure of freedom people in more regulated environments don't have. It made classroom management easier, too, since teachers no longer had to look after big and little children in the same room. By 1919, for example, the Philadelphia school system calculated that it was taking an average of 10 years for students to complete eight grades Pennsylvania State Department of Public Instruction, 1922, p.

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## The dynamic tension at the core of the grammar of schooling

Dewey was relentlessly critical of traditional education compared to Tyack and Cuban, who argued that gradual and incremental reforms often produced highly beneficial results. Policy talk has alternated between lamentation and overconfidence. Classes in particular subjects may be tracked by ability level, with students of the same ability assigned to the same classroom. Reformers, for example, have alternately proposed student-centered pedagogy or teacher-centered instruction, attention to academic or to practical knowledge, and centralized or decentralized governance of schools. This has both pros and cons: Because individual educators have some degree of privacy and autonomy, they have some freedom to change their teaching practices.

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## [PDF] Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform.

When mission and needs collide Ever since age grading was introduced, over a century-and-a-half ago, educators have been unable to find a better alternative that strikes a more even balance between the worthwhile and the doable. However, in the schools where these literacies exist, they benefit the learning of students by bringing learning outside of the classroom, creating a socially comfortable environment for all students, and developing new skills that students will need in the future. The American public school system is a complex and radically dispersed social organization, spread across 14,000 school districts, 100,000 schools, 3 million teachers, and 50 million students National Center for Education Statistics, 2021. Laggards in our schools. It has felt like a black box, reliably foiling the efforts of reformers but never revealing the secret to its strength.

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## Tyack And Cuban Analysis

It includes things like grouping students into grades by age, dividing learning into a set of discrete subjects math, science, English, and social studies , each of them taught within a self-contained classroom, presided over by a lone teacher who controls the learning process, maintains discipline, and assigns grades based on performance. And David Cohen and Jal Mehta 2017 find that while educators do sometimes make dramatic changes to their curriculum, instruction, and other practices, those changes tend to be confined to discrete organizational niches and programs, rather than prevailing across whole schools or districts. Although policy talk has sounded a millennial tone, the actual reforms have been gradual and incremental. The second dimension, then, seeks to find the common ground. For over a century, Americans have translated their cultural anxieties and hopes into dramatic demands for educational reform. Report of the survey of the public schools of Philadelphia, II.

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## What We've Forgotten About School Reform: Courtesy of Messrs. Tyack, Cuban, and Payne (Opinion)

Dewey thought that some progressive schools had gone too far in the other direction, though, in the name of rejecting the evils and absurdities of the traditional school. In one sense, it obviously works to everyone's disadvantage. From Our Blog Starting in the summer of 2023, for the first time in almost thirty years, Harvard Book Store will have two locations: the flagship store in Harvard Square, and a large new store in the Prudential Center in Boston. Getty Images Why are certain elements of schooling so resistant to change? Their duty is to absorb all the knowledge of the past through lectures and rote memorization of texts, including the Bible, although Dewey did not mention this directly. In the 19th Century, the Protestant-republican ideology of Horace Mann dominated the early public school systems, with particular emphasis on assimilating and "Americanizing" Tyack and Cuban maintained that most of the various reform efforts of the past 100 years, many of which had failed, but Dewey would have found their attitude too conservative, cynical and pessimistic. They regarded the rural foes of school consolidation as backward yokels who did not know what was good for their children. This is not to say that there have been no changes at all for the last 100 years, for their have been -- and some very significant ones.

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## Comparing Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change

Using technology in an educational setting is a process that most schools and universities around the world are adopting. At a time when privileged parents have come to exert greater and greater pressure on the system, seeking advantages that will help their children win the increasingly intense competition to get into the best colleges and capture the best jobs, the bureaucracy insists on treating all students the same. Children spend 13 or 14 years of their lives in schools, families organize their schedules around the school calendar, and state and local governments spend about a third of their finances in support of the schooling enterprise. Indeed, public schools came to resemble the factories and offices of industrial capitalism, run like the assembly lines of Henry Ford according to the ' Dewey would have agreed with Tyack and Cuban that some progressive reformers had gone too far in the direction of faddishness and trendiness in their schools, and that this should be corrected. Further, the discourse and tone of the discussion is a parallel argument about the nature of our scholarly discussions of education, often bound themselves by traditional and mechanistic assumptions about the nature of academic writing.

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## What Weâ€™ve Forgotten About School Reform: Courtesy of Messrs. Tyack, Cuban, and Payne

An understanding of critical pedagogy must begin with a disclaimer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. When students pass a class by earning the minimum grade, they accumulate credits based on the number of hours they spent in that class each week. Nowadays project-based learning is a much bigger deal in schools. Excerpt from Research Paper : Â¶â€¦ Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the Our Tyack and Cuban were under no illusions about the origins of this particular kind of educational grammar.

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## Tinkering toward Utopia â€” David Tyack, Larry Cuban

Industrialization had changed the nature of American capitalism, which was no longer based on the sole proprietor, petty merchant, artisan or small farmer, but the giant corporation. Is it really increasing and helping students learn like teachers thought it would? Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Why has it been so difficult to change the basic institutional patterns of schooling? Lastly, critical pedagogy impels teachers to use their classrooms to make life more humane. Pannapacker in the article, "Homeschooling Provides the Best Education" says, "School sometimes teaches otherwise happy and intelligent children to become sullen and secretive and contemptuous of learning. And, in fact, when a school reform meets both of these criteria, significant change can be accomplished with surprising ease. Were they in the Advanced Placement track, academic track, general track, vocational track, or remedial track? Capitalists and those they funded and employed insisted that schools be run in a "business-like" manner, with schedules, timetables, age-graded levels, primarily to prepare students for work in factories and offices.

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## What We've Forgotten About School Reform: Courtesy of Messrs. Tyack, Cuban, and Payne

As soon as schools began to hold back their underperforming students, they accumulated older children in the lower grades, resulting in precisely the sort of mixed-age grouping they were trying to avoid. In short, it turns out to be very difficult for school systems to maintain a balance between social legitimacy and organizational practicality, even when it comes to educational practices that strike this balance relatively well. Understanding this will help reformers figure out how to proceed in pursuing desired changes in the system. Tyack and Cuban are content merely to describe the various educational reform movements that have come and gone over the past 100 years, many of which turned out to be merely trendy and ephemeral. Sometimes they have spent a good deal of energy in coopting, minimally complying with, or resisting reforms that they did not want from legislators eager to regulate their activity, politicians wanting quick results to help them get reelected, or district entrepreneurs keen to install new programs. To succeed, reforms must seek balance The core educational structures that make up the grammar of schooling can only be maintained by a recurring series of school reforms that seek to maintain the balance of school ideals and school practices. This system needs to be able to function within budgetary and logistical constraints.

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## (DOC) Tyack & Cuban

Jacks Professor of Education, emeritus, at the Stanford University Graduate School of Education in Palo Alto, Calif. Why does one seem like such an unavoidable, fundamental feature of a school, while the other has been relatively easy to abolish? Having all of these new resources in the classroom is a huge advantage for students because they are much more interactive to learn on so the content is easily remembered rather than just being told all of the new information. We know the what but not the why. While often ineffective and easily ridiculed, it also serves as an important stabilizing force, helping to protect the civic mission of our schools from those who would undermine it. Chicago Style"Tyack and Cuban With Dewey. More than three decades ago, David Cohen 1988 provided an insight that might help answer this question.

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