Ionic Greek architecture is a style of ancient Greek architecture that is characterized by its use of Ionic columns. These columns are distinctive for their capital, which features a row of volutes, or decorative scrolls, that encircle a central disk. The Ionic order of architecture was developed in the mid-5th century BCE and became popular in the eastern parts of the Greek world, particularly in Ionia, a region located in modern-day Turkey.
One of the most famous examples of Ionic Greek architecture is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. This temple, which was dedicated to the goddess Artemis, was constructed in the mid-6th century BCE and was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The temple was built entirely of marble and featured a series of Ionic columns that supported the roof. These columns were adorned with intricate carvings and were topped with the distinctive Ionic capital.
Another well-known example of Ionic Greek architecture is the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis in Athens. This temple, which was dedicated to the goddess Athena, was constructed in the 5th century BCE and was known for its small size and delicate design. The temple was surrounded by a series of Ionic columns that supported the roof and was adorned with sculptures of winged figures, representing the goddess Athena.
In addition to temples, Ionic Greek architecture was also used in the construction of public buildings, such as the Agora, or marketplace, in Athens. The Agora was a central gathering place for the citizens of Athens and was surrounded by a series of Ionic columns that supported a covered walkway. This covered walkway provided shelter from the sun and rain and was a popular place for people to gather and conduct business.
Ionic Greek architecture was also influential in the development of Roman architecture. The Romans adopted many of the design elements of the Ionic order, including the use of Ionic columns and the distinctive Ionic capital. The Romans also incorporated other elements of Greek architecture, such as the use of pediments and triangular gables, into their own buildings.
Overall, Ionic Greek architecture is characterized by its use of Ionic columns and the distinctive Ionic capital. It was a popular style in the eastern parts of the Greek world and had a lasting influence on the development of Roman architecture.
The triglyphs have three vertical grooves, similar to columnar fluting, and below them are guttae, small strips that appear to connect the triglyps to the architrave below. The Greeks agreed and also believed that architectural design should include logic and symmetry. The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. As shown in Figure 4, the Corinthian is similar to the Ionic order in its base, column, and entablature, but its capital is far more ornate, carved with two tiers of curly acanthus leaves. The extant columns of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens are classic examples of the Ionic Order. The Doric column is the oldest and plainest. It also acts as a strong vertical element and is effective at minimizing horizontal joints.
A triglyph is a carved panel, usually referred to as the Doric frieze that gives the suggestion of the base of a beam. Ioannina: The University of Ioannina. The Doric order is the oldest classical style of temple architecture, characterized by simple, sturdy columns that rise without a base to an unornamented, cushion like capital. The Odeon of Herodes Atticus is a stone theater structure on the southwest slope of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Above the capital, the entablature is narrower than the Doric, with a frieze containing a continuous band of sculpture. Comparison Table Parameters of Comparison Doric Ionic Origin Western Doric Region of Greece Ionian Islands Style Massive and Stocky Slender and Taller Height 7 diameters high 8 diameters high Base No base Has base Capitals Consists of a round bottom and a square top It is elaborate with volutes or scrolls that have a carved egg and dart on its curved section. Why is Greek architecture so important? But after a few hundred years, they got more creative and sometimes used one order for the exterior and another for the interior.
Ancient Greek decorative columns were categorized into orders and included the Doric Order, Ionic Order, and Corinthian Order. The tall capital combines both semi-naturalistic leaves and highly stylised tendrils forming volutes. Roman forms of the order of the Doric column appear lighter and more graceful than that of Greek columns. The proportions of the orders were developed over a long period of time — they became lighter and more refined. While the lower part was made of limestone, the upper part was made of mud brick and terracotta tiles were also used. On top of the base is the shaft, the long part of the column with groves running down the sides.
In other words, the stylobate comprises the temple flooring. The Parthenon had all the elements of a Greek temple: the columns and entablature, the pediment full of sculptures. The triglyps are located above the center of each capital and the center of each lintel. The structure of the columns was an important part of this feature. The exterior colonnade on the first floor was Ionic and the interior was Pergamene. . Ionic Temple at Yorkshire Columns The Ionic order is defined by the Ionic column.
However, later forms of the Doric columns came with a standard base which consisted of a plinth and a torus. In architecture, the post and lintel system refers to any building in which the weight of the roof is supported by load-bearing upright sections and a horizontal section on top of those. Finally, the abacus is a square block that directly supports the entablature above and distributes the weight to the rest of the column. They were built as focal points on the highest ground of every city in Greece and the conquered territories around the Mediterranean. London: Thames and Hudson.
It is called Ionic because it developed in the Ionian islands in the 6th century B. Ancient Greek and Roman architecture is collectively known as Classical, and so Corinthian columns are found in Classical architecture. Historians say that the original temple was probably comprised of a room and a corridor, to which other things were slowly added. Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens The Sharing is caring! Are Ionic columns Roman? This order made its appearance towards the beginning of the 7 th century BCE, making it the oldest order, the simplest, and most massive. The architrave thus consists of a continuous carved frieze rather than the alternating Doric triglyphs and metopes.
The best marble came from Many temples also carried architectural sculpture arranged to tell a narrative. The frieze is separated from the architrave by a narrow band called the regula. Another Greek mathematician, Pythagoras 560-480 BCE , proved that the Golden Proportion was the basis for the proportions of the human figure. The base is the stone platform at the bottom of the column. Another notable example of the Doric order is considered the The Ionian order The Ionian order originated during the mid-6 th century in Ionia, which was a coastal region of central Anatolia, where the Greeks migrated during the 11 th century BCE. This led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors.
Ancient Greek Architecture: Dorian, Ionic & Corinthian
You can see how they tapered the columns at the top to make the building seem taller, a trick they called entasis. At the start of what is now known as the Classical period of architecture, ancient Greek architecture developed into three distinct orders: the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. There are usually multiple layers to the base. The temple of Zeus at Athens started in the 2d cent. Early Ionic temples in Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale. The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples, deeper and with greater curve in later, more refined examples, and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistic examples.