The development of underdevelopment summary. Underdevelopment: Concept and Meaning 2022-10-08
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The concept of underdevelopment refers to the persistent economic and social disparities that exist between developed and developing countries. These disparities are often the result of a complex interplay of historical, political, and economic factors, and have been a central concern in the field of development economics for many years.
One of the earliest and most influential theories of underdevelopment was proposed by the economist and sociologist Andre Gunder Frank in the 1960s. Frank argued that underdevelopment was not simply a natural outcome of economic processes, but was instead the result of a systematic exploitation of the developing world by the developed world. According to Frank, developed countries had used their economic and political power to extract resources and labor from the developing world, while simultaneously preventing the development of local industries and infrastructure. This process, known as "dependency theory," was seen as a key driver of underdevelopment in the developing world.
Other scholars have pointed to the role of colonialism and imperialism in the development of underdevelopment. During the period of European colonization, many developing countries were subjected to exploitative policies and practices that drained their resources and hindered their economic development. For example, the British Empire used its military and economic power to extract raw materials and cheap labor from its colonies, while simultaneously imposing tariffs and other barriers to trade that prevented the development of local industries. This process of colonial exploitation was seen as a key factor in the development of underdevelopment in many parts of the world.
In recent years, scholars have also focused on the role of global economic policies in the development of underdevelopment. For example, some have argued that the policies of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank have contributed to underdevelopment by imposing economic liberalization and structural adjustment programs on developing countries. These policies, which are often designed to promote free trade and economic growth, have been criticized for exacerbating inequality and undermining the ability of developing countries to build strong and sustainable economies.
Despite these challenges, there have also been significant efforts to address underdevelopment and promote economic development in the developing world. For example, many international organizations and development agencies have provided financial and technical assistance to help developing countries build the infrastructure, institutions, and human capital needed to support economic growth. In addition, the concept of "sustainable development" has gained increasing attention in recent years, with a focus on finding ways to promote economic growth while also protecting the environment and addressing social and cultural issues.
Overall, the development of underdevelopment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, shaped by a wide range of historical, political, and economic factors. While there is still much work to be done to address the persistent disparities between developed and developing countries, there are also many efforts underway to promote economic development and improve the lives of people in the developing world.
Journal on Andre Gunder Frank’s “The Development of Underdevelopment” Essay Example
Monthly Review Volume 18. . An increase in average per capita GNP also however is not sufficient to denote the implied or expected meaning of economic development. The reason for this contrast was that feudalism had already developed forms of private ownership, while the Asiatic societies were principally based upon the communal ownership of land. . This often translates into precarious jobs, low pay, low class mobility, and thus poverty.
Frank further …show more content… He contends that underdevelopment is generated by the same historical process that generated development. For example, having political freedom gives citizens a voice, which allows them to vote for parties in favor of their demographics and allow for social opportunities. . The bond so created gives the lender a Maritime Lien read thi. Rather than issue a formal bill of lading, the carrier. These goods may not be manipulated or proc. .
. The dictionary definition simply does not suffice to show the human cost of poverty. . After being squeezed dry like a lemon in course of world capitalist development, There ahs been a decreasing world market for the human and natural resources of Africa and it has posed the threat for other regions also. Watching the living states of the quickly developing populace, it is evident this is really the case. Under this structure, the metropolis countries monopolized the economy and society of their satellite countries for their own economic and social interests and gains. .
. The summary of the thesis was that industrialized rich nations obstruct or delay the development of poor nations by the help of policies and interventions designed to protect their global dominance over world trade and power. In regard of Latin America there was no hope left. Many had hoped that the multinational corporations and their foreign investment would reduce if not eliminate the dependence. In other words, Marx argued that the introduction of capitalism in India was a necessary evil. Moreover, his arguments had solid foundations because he used specific evidences such as historical events to substantiate his claims. .
He had even analyzed the economic crisis in the world which he viewed as the continuation of the structural past. . While searching for other alternatives, the present world development policy seem to be inadequate and the need is directed towards the battle with anti-development by taking marginalized into account who ate in fact the majorities. The original Marxian theory had envisaged that capitalism would eventually become the dominant economic system on a world scale. For this reason, Marx, Weber, Brenner, North and Thomas all hold different beliefs as to how capitalism emerged and how it has developed into modern day capitalism. Moreover, Frank illustrated how Brazil was once a country that experience massive economic development due to its exports but its development was gradually halted when its economy was incorporated into the world capitalist system.
However, there is a set of common characteristics of underdeveloped economies such as low per capita income, low levels of living, high rate of population growth, illiteracy, technical backwardness, capital deficiency, dependence on backward agriculture, high level of unemployment, unfavourable institutions and so on. With current waves of globalization sweeping across the globe, third world countries have arguably benefitted from the diffusion process as well. . In fact, they are a class of people who are always striving to survive. In relation to Cuba, it educates by demonstrating revolutionary regime ideas, since the Cuban revolution as its main objective was to gain self-sovereignty.
The European Customs Union Study Group submitted to the contracting states the Convention on the Valuation of Goods for Customs Purposes, along w. . The most technologically, industrially and economically developed countries, with minimal poverty margins. It was because the structural problem had not been resolved and the temporary solution of the problems through the inappropriate policies had further aggravated the problem, thus paving the way for the next recession. The cru, as it was known, was to have been linked to gold to create international reserves.
Andre Gunder Frank’s Analysis of Development of Underdevelopment
Therefore, the underdeveloped nations are in such circumstances due to their connection with the developed societies. The contradictions of capitalism emerge in the course of historical evolution of capitalism. The group, consisting of the United States, Great Britain, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada, and Sweden, derived the name from a 1962 General Agreement to Borrow signed to make U. . For example, where it was industry practice for a product to be sold directly by a manufacturer to an end u.
. . It is the view of Andre that economic development happens in a series of a succession of capitalist stages. Poverty is not uniformly distributed across the globe, there are rich and poor people in every country, although most of the poor live in three regions, South 30% and East 15% Asia and Sub Saharan Africa 40% of the population. . It Is Concerned with the Shaping of Attitudes, the Creation of Forcibly, Workable Institutional Structure or Otherwise. Underdevelopment indices Institutions such as the World Bank use theGross Domestic Product GDP in their regional study ratesas one of the main indicators of the development margin of nations.