Classification of organic compounds based on their structure. Organic compounds Classification, Functional group and Homologous series 2022-10-29
Classification of organic compounds based on their structure Rating:
Organic compounds are chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, along with a variety of other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and halogens. These compounds are essential to life and are found in all living organisms, as well as in many non-living substances. Organic compounds can be classified based on their structure, which refers to the arrangement of atoms within the molecule. There are several different ways to classify organic compounds based on their structure, including their functional group, their degree of unsaturation, and their molecular shape.
One way to classify organic compounds is based on the functional group they contain. A functional group is a specific group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for the chemical properties of the molecule. For example, alcohols contain the hydroxyl (-OH) functional group, while carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Other common functional groups include the amine (-NH2) group found in amines, the aldehyde (-CHO) group found in aldehydes, and the ketone (-CO-) group found in ketones.
Another way to classify organic compounds is based on their degree of unsaturation. Unsaturation refers to the presence of double bonds or triple bonds between carbon atoms within a molecule. Compounds that contain one or more double bonds or triple bonds are called unsaturated compounds, while those that do not contain any double bonds or triple bonds are called saturated compounds. Unsaturated compounds are typically more reactive than saturated compounds, and they are often used in the synthesis of other organic compounds.
Finally, organic compounds can also be classified based on their molecular shape. Molecular shape refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule, and it is determined by the arrangement of bond angles and the presence of lone pairs of electrons. The molecular shape of a molecule can influence its chemical properties, and it is often used to predict the reactivity of a compound. For example, compounds with a linear molecular shape tend to be less reactive than those with a bent or tetrahedral shape.
In summary, organic compounds can be classified based on their structure, including their functional group, their degree of unsaturation, and their molecular shape. Understanding the structure of an organic compound can help chemists predict its chemical properties and reactivity, and it is an important aspect of organic chemistry.
Classification on Organic Compounds: Detailed Explanation
The vital force theory gradually went away as chemists learned that they could make many organic compounds in the laboratory. Each alkene and alkynes have a systematic name that also depends on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. So carbon has a negative charge, and metal has a positive charge. Glucose is used as a sweetening agent. There are 3 double bonds i. Which of the following is not true about homologous series? Hence, they are vital for sustaining life on earth.
Introduction to Organic Compounds: Classification, Importance
These cyclic compounds are again classified into homocyclic and heterocyclic compounds. Acetic acid finds its use as a food preservative. The compounds in which carbon is covalently linked to hydrogen and other elements such as oxygen and nitrogen are known as organic compounds. What he expected is described by the following equation. N, O or S is present as one of the ring forming atoms are called heterocyclic compounds.
We explain what organic chemistry is, the compounds it studies and how it is classified. For example- Cyclobutane, Tetrahydrofuran Homocyclic closed chain compounds consists of only one type of atom in the ring. Structural isomerism is further classified into: i Chain isomerism: When two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of carbon skeletons, exhibit chain isomerism. Classification Based on Carbon Skeleton or Structure Depending upon the arrangement of carbon atoms in their structure, organic compounds are broadly categorised into: 1. They are also categorized into two divisions.
Classification of Organic Compounds: Learn Classification, Types
An organic compound has empirical formula CH 2O and molecular weight 90. These compounds are also called aromatics or arenas. A few examples of these compounds are benzene and toluene. Chand and company Ltd, New Delhi, 1992. The acyclic compounds can be branched or unbranched. In nature, the metal-carbon atom bond is frequently highly covalent.
They are composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen. The preparation of organic compounds is explained below: a. These compounds are called Acyclic because they lack the presence of a cyclic structure. Each carbon atom is understood to be attached to enough hydrogen atoms to give each carbon atom four bonds. These are further divided into the following two sub-classes. The bonding that exists between carbon and hydrogen is covalent.
A structural formula shows all the carbon and hydrogen atoms and the bonds attaching them. For example, the CH 3 group derived from methane CH 4 results from subtracting one hydrogen atom and is called a methyl group. A few examples of these compounds are benzene and toluene. Examples Of Organometallic Compounds Organometallic compounds play a very important role in the future of Science. For now, we will only worry about drawing and recognizing each functional group, as depicted by Lewis and line structures.
Chloroform is used as an anaesthesia. They are understood to be present in order to complete the 4-bonds provided by the carbon atoms. These complex molecules all containing carbon determine the forms and functions of living systems and are the subject of biochemistry. The bonds present on them are single, double, and triple bonds. Carbon is the main factor as it has four electrons that can accommodate eight electrons in an outer shell. Closed chain or cyclic hydrocarbons are formed when both the ends of an aliphatic carbon chain meet, a closed chain is obtained. Depending upon the constitution of the ring, these are further divided into following two categories: 1 Homocyclic or carbocyclic compounds: These compounds contain rings which are made up of only one kind of atoms i.
[Chemistry Class Notes] on Classification of Organic Compounds Pdf for Exam 2023
Which of the following is a heterocyclic aromatic compound : a. Examples of these compounds are thiophene, furan and so on. Alkanes include chemical substances such as propane, octane, and methane. There are many functional groups which include hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, cyano group, etc. The presence of empty low-lying orbitals on the metal atom or a nonbonding pair of electrons is linked to this property.
These compounds are distinguished by the existence of one or more than one isolated or fused benzene rings and their derivatives additionally in the structure. This does not mean that other organic and non-organic elements are not present in organic substances. This is a crucial reaction and the most common way to get started in organometallic chemistry. They are distinguished by the types of bonding between carbon atoms and the properties that result from that bonding. At or below room temperature, it is kinetically unstable to oxidation.
When a metal is monovalent, it produces an equal quantity of metal halide. But in alkenes and alkynes there is a possibility of addition of atoms or groups so they are called unsaturated. This is a crucial reaction and the most common way to get started in organometallic chemistry. Only the bonds between the carbon atoms are shown as lines. Acyclic or open chain compounds Here the carbon atoms are arranged in such a way that an open chain or acyclic compound is formed. A systematic way of naming hydrocarbons and other organic compounds has been devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC.