Govt of india act 1935. Government of India Act 1935: Features, Analysis & More for UPSC! 2022-10-03
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The Government of India Act 1935 was a major reform of the administrative and constitutional structure of British India. It was passed by the British Parliament in 1935 and came into effect in 1937, after being delayed by the outbreak of World War II. The Act was the longest and most detailed of all the constitutional acts passed by the British Parliament for the governance of India. It was also the last major constitutional reform before India gained independence in 1947.
The Act was intended to provide a new constitutional framework for India that would give greater autonomy to the provinces and reduce the central government's control over them. It also introduced a system of government that was based on a federal structure, with a weak central government and strong provincial governments.
One of the major provisions of the Act was the establishment of a bicameral central legislature, consisting of the Council of States and the Federal Assembly. The Council of States was composed of 260 members, with representation from the provinces, the princely states, and the British Indian territories. The Federal Assembly was composed of 375 elected members and 125 nominated members, with representation based on population.
The Act also introduced a system of dyarchy, which divided the powers and responsibilities of the provinces between the governor and the ministers. The governor was appointed by the British Crown and had the power to veto legislation passed by the provincial legislature. The ministers, on the other hand, were responsible for the administration of the provinces and were elected by the provincial legislature.
In addition to these changes, the Act also introduced a number of other reforms, including the establishment of a public service commission, the introduction of separate electorates for Muslims, the establishment of a federal court, and the introduction of a system of indirect elections for the selection of the members of the federal legislature.
Overall, the Government of India Act 1935 was a significant step towards the decentralization of the Indian administration and the devolution of power to the provinces. It also laid the foundations for the development of a federal system of government in India, which was eventually realized after independence in 1947.
Modern History Simplified: Government of India Act of 1935
The main purpose of imposing dyarchy was to bring stability and efficiency at the center. Remarks The Government of IndiaAct was passed by the British parliament in 1935 and came into effect in 1937. Secretary of state provided with team of 15 members. Grove Press Books, distributed by Publishers Group West. This led directly to the resignation of the Congress provincial ministries. In concluding agreements of this character, the Foreign Secretary always consults the Board of Trade and it was assumed that the Governor-General would in like manner consult the Minister of Commerce in India.
The Kenyan political system, introduced under the 2010 Constitution has paved way for a complex web of checks and balances between newly created branches of government. There are very detailed provisions requiring the Viceroy to intervene if, in his unappealable view, any Indian law or regulation is intended to, or will, in fact, discriminate against UK resident British subjects, British registered companies and, particularly, British shipping interests. A bicameral legislature is seen across the political divide as an effective means to check the excesses of unicameralism that had projected the country into both socio-economic and political dark past. In fact, so little was offered that all significant groups in British India rejected and denounced the proposed Federation. The Act waswritten in a legal style, organised around 11 'Parts' and 10 'Schedules'.
The Council had to act in confidence with the legislature. Today, this constitution is the source of justice for the common man. It isconsidered to be one of the longest pieces of legislation passed by the British parliament - parliamentary debates around the Act involved 2000 speeches. But the reality is lacking, for the powers in defence and external affairs necessarily, as matters stand, given to the governor-general limit vitally the scope of ministerial activity, and the measure of representation given to the rulers of the Indian States negatives any possibility of even the beginnings of democratic control. The British came to India in the 1600s primarily for trade. Since the one common concern of the 600 or so Princes was their desire to continue to rule their states without interference, this was indeed a mortal threat. The 1919 act provided for separate subjects for Centre and Provinces Under the Act of 1919 the Provinces were at the mercy of the Centre It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India Government of India Act 1935 was passed by British Parliament in August 1935.
However, the Liberals and even elements in the Congress were tepidly willing to give it a go: "Linlithgow asked Sapru whether he thought there was a satisfactory alternative to the scheme of the 1935 Act. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. In this article, Saksham of UPES discuss the features of Government of India Act, 1935. Though the provinces could act as an independent authority within their acquired areas, the centre had a ruling authority over them. In fact, the Congress High Command was able to control the provincial ministries and to force their resignation in 1939. Provincial governments could borrow money on their own security.
File:Government of India Act childhealthpolicy.vumc.org
One was termed the Upper house, and the other the Lower house. Legislature, there shall be freedom of speech in the Legislature, and no member of the Legislature shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof , and no person shall be so liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in the Legislature or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either Chamber of the Legislature of any report, paper, votes or proceedings. It served as a milestone and paved the way for a responsible form of government in India. It was based on a report by a Joint Select Committee, led by Lord Linlithgow, set up the two houses of the British parliament. Govt of India Act 1919 focussed on British Provinces.
Furthermore, the Act did not speak of the defence which was an integral part of national security nor about the rights of the people of the country. Bharatmata ki jai — is the mantra for milking and worshiping, both. Conclusion The 1935 Act was condemned by nearly all sections and unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Act provided a dual form of government a "diarchy" for the major provinces. The 1935 act provided for establishing All-IndiaFederation with powers divided as Federal List and Provincial List comprising of British provinces, 6 chief commissioner provinces and princely states but the federation never came into existence. Also, voting rights were limited to only 10% of the population, not making the government democratic. However, there were powers that lay with both the centre and the states.
Government of India Act 1935: Features, Analysis & More for UPSC!
However, the paternalistic threat of the intervention by the British governor rankled Indian nationalists. Once a policy is laid down they will carry it out loyally and faithfully… We could not help it. Bharatmata is bharatgavi also. However, Congress decided to fight elections to impede the functioning of the government and to carry out political mobilization. Autocracy was "a principle which is firmly seated in the Indian States," he pointed out; "round it burn the sacred fires of an age-long tradition," and it should be given a fair chance first. It was to be composed of 260 members of which 156 were to be representatives of British India while 101 of the Indian states.
Difference Between Govt Of Indian Act 1919 And 1935 [jlk9pzqvg845]
The British authorities had the power to suspend the elected government representatives. INTRODUCTION The Government of India Act was passed by the British Government in the year 1935. It was immensely long, containing 473 clauses and 16 schedules, and the reports of the debates took up 4,000 pages of As a result of this process, although the Government of India Act 1935 was intended to go some way towards meeting Indian demands, both the detail of the bill and the lack of Indian involvement in drafting its contents meant that the Act met with a lukewarm response at best in India, while still proving too radical for a significant element in Britain. You shall have nothing to do, or, for all practical purposes in future, you shall have nothing to do with your currency and exchange, for indeed the Reserve Bank Bill just passed has a further reservation in the Constitution that no legislation may be undertaken with a view to substantially alter the provisions of that Act except with the consent of the Governor-General…. Diarchy at the centre 3.