The four early river valley civilizations that played a significant role in the development of human society were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, the Egyptians in the Nile Valley, the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and India, and the Shang Dynasty in China. These civilizations emerged around 4000 BCE and 3000 BCE, and they all shared some common characteristics, such as the use of agriculture and the development of complex systems of government and social organization. However, they also had significant differences in terms of their geography, culture, and technological achievements.
The Sumerians, who lived in the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, were the first civilization to develop a system of writing, known as cuneiform. They used this writing system to record laws, contracts, and other important documents. The Sumerians also developed a system of government that was based on city-states, which were independent units that were each ruled by a king or a ruler. They built complex irrigation systems to water their crops and constructed elaborate temples and palaces.
The Egyptians, who lived along the banks of the Nile River, were known for their impressive architecture and their sophisticated system of government. They built pyramids, temples, and other monumental structures that have stood the test of time and remain some of the most iconic landmarks in the world. The Egyptians also developed a complex system of writing, known as hieroglyphics, which was used to record the history and accomplishments of the Pharaohs and their subjects.
The Indus Valley Civilization, which developed in present-day Pakistan and India, was known for its advanced urban planning and its sophisticated system of trade. The Indus Valley Civilization was home to a number of large cities, including Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, which were known for their well-planned streets and buildings. The Indus Valley Civilization was also the first civilization to produce cotton cloth, which was used to make a variety of clothing and other textiles.
Finally, the Shang Dynasty, which ruled over much of present-day China, was known for its bronze casting and its system of writing, known as Oracle bone script. The Shang Dynasty also developed a complex system of government, which was based on the rule of a powerful king and a system of nobles and officials. The Shang Dynasty was also the first civilization in China to develop a system of writing, which was used to record the history and accomplishments of the rulers and their subjects.
In conclusion, the four early river valley civilizations of Sumer, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and the Shang Dynasty played a significant role in the development of human society. These civilizations made important contributions to the fields of writing, government, and trade, and they laid the foundations for the great civilizations that followed.
Roman Fever is a short story written by Edith Wharton in 1934. The story is set in Rome, Italy and follows the lives of two wealthy American women, Mrs. Alida Slade and Mrs. Grace Ansley, who have been friends for many years. The two women are accompanied by their daughters, Barbara and Jenny, who are around the same age.
The story begins with Mrs. Slade and Mrs. Ansley sitting on a terrace overlooking the city of Rome. They are reminiscing about their youth and the time they spent in Rome as young women. Mrs. Slade tells Mrs. Ansley about a letter that she received from a man named Delphin Slade, who is her daughter Barbara's father. Delphin was Mrs. Slade's former lover and the father of her daughter, but she never told Barbara about him.
As the conversation between the two women continues, it is revealed that Mrs. Ansley also had a secret past in Rome. She had a brief affair with Delphin while he was still in a relationship with Mrs. Slade. Mrs. Ansley became pregnant with Delphin's child and gave birth to a daughter, Jenny. However, Mrs. Ansley decided to raise Jenny as her own and never told her the truth about her parentage.
As the women continue to talk, they begin to realize that their daughters, Barbara and Jenny, have developed feelings for each other. Mrs. Slade and Mrs. Ansley are concerned about this development because of their own complicated history with Delphin and their desire to protect their daughters from the same mistakes they made.
The story ends with Mrs. Slade and Mrs. Ansley resolving to tell their daughters the truth about their past and their connection to Delphin. They hope that by being honest with their daughters, they can help them avoid the mistakes and heartache that they experienced in their youth.
Roman Fever is a powerful story that explores themes of love, betrayal, and the consequences of secrets. It is a poignant tale that highlights the importance of honesty and the enduring nature of friendship.