Authoritarian theory of mass communication. 8 Mass Communication Theories and Why They Matter 2022-10-15
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The Hunger Games is a young adult novel written by Suzanne Collins and published in 2008. It is the first book in a trilogy of the same name, followed by Catching Fire and Mockingjay. The Hunger Games tells the story of a dystopian society called Panem, which is divided into 12 districts and ruled by a wealthy and powerful Capitol. As punishment for a past rebellion, the Capitol holds an annual event called the Hunger Games, in which one boy and one girl from each district are chosen by lottery to compete in a brutal televised fight to the death. The protagonist of the story is a 16-year-old girl named Katniss Everdeen, who volunteers to take her younger sister's place in the Hunger Games and becomes a symbol of hope for her district and the rebellion against the Capitol.
The Hunger Games has been a wildly popular and successful series, with the books selling millions of copies worldwide and the movies grossing billions of dollars at the box office. As with any successful work, there have been questions and controversies surrounding the copyright of The Hunger Games. In this essay, we will explore the issues surrounding the copyright of The Hunger Games and the legal protections that exist to protect the creative works of authors like Suzanne Collins.
First, let's define what copyright is and how it applies to creative works like novels. Copyright is a legal concept that protects the rights of creators to control the use and distribution of their creative works. This includes the right to reproduce, distribute, perform, and display the work, as well as the right to create derivatives of the work. In the United States, copyright protection applies to original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible form, such as a book, movie, or song.
So, how does copyright apply to The Hunger Games? As the creator of The Hunger Games, Suzanne Collins holds the copyright to the work. This means that she has the exclusive right to control how the work is used and distributed, including the right to make copies of the book and authorize others to do so. She also has the right to create adaptations of the work, such as the Hunger Games movies, and to control the distribution of those adaptations.
However, copyright is not an absolute right, and there are certain exceptions and limitations to the exclusive rights of copyright holders. One such limitation is the "fair use" doctrine, which allows for the use of copyrighted material without permission in certain circumstances, such as for the purpose of criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research. Fair use is determined on a case-by-case basis, and requires a balancing of the interests of the copyright holder with the public interest in the use of the material.
Another exception to copyright protection is the "public domain," which refers to works that are no longer protected by copyright or that were never protected to begin with. Works may enter the public domain for a variety of reasons, such as the expiration of the copyright term or the failure to meet certain formalities for obtaining copyright protection. Once a work is in the public domain, it can be used freely by anyone without permission or the need to pay royalties.
So, what does all of this mean for The Hunger Games and its copyright? As the copyright holder, Suzanne Collins has the exclusive right to control the use and distribution of the work, subject to the limitations of fair use and the public domain. This means that anyone who wants to use The Hunger Games in a way that falls outside of fair use or the public domain will need to obtain permission from Collins or her representatives. This could include things like making copies of the book for distribution, creating adaptations of the work, or using the work in advertising or other commercial contexts.
In conclusion, The Hunger Games is protected by
(PDF) THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION
These theories offer a framework for comprehending the impact that the messages in media may have on audiences. Agenda setting theory According to the theory of agenda setting, news organizations, such as media outlets, work to develop a public news agenda. Media is often controlled by way of pre-censorship in this type of system. Licensing is yet another mechanism of authoritarian control. This change has prompted speculation about the reasons for such ups and downs Zeta de Pozo 2001.
THE DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPANT MEDIA THEORY This theory is sternly opposed to bureaucratic control of the media. What are the five theories of mass communication? In this scenario, agenda for discussion are set by the media, which also mentally order and organize their world. His work has been profiled in nearly every major American publication, and he has appeared as the featured speaker at many conservative events on campuses nationwide, several of those appearances targeted by progressive and Antifa activists. There are still several countries who follow Authoritarianism in media today which are Israel, Bahrain, Qatar, Syria, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Zimbabwe, China, North Korea, Iran, etc. The Social Responsibility Theory, which they claim should replace the Free Press Theory, has its origin in the United States of America.
Four Theories of the Press: Authoritarian vs. Libertarian
These normative theories are also known as western theories of mass media. This resulted in the advocacy of complete dictatorship. It was based on the observation made by the Commission of The Freedom of Press 1949 in which it was asserted that the free market approach to press freedom had only increased the Power of a single class and had not served the interests of the less well-off classes. What is the authoritarian theory? What is authoritarianism in simple words? What is the authoritarian theory of the press? The editor is in charge of selecting which stories to publish on the front page and which to hold back. Gatekeeping theory Gatekeeping theory is a facet of agenda setting theory.
Limited effects theory According to the limited effects theory, there are certain types of effects that media can have on people. Media dependency theory According to the media dependency theory, there is a connection between the media, the audience, and larger social systems. Else, such activities are punishable in different forms. The works of Hobbes and Engels perhaps influenced the authoritarian approach in early Western Europe wherein freedom of thought was jealousy guarded by only a few people that is, the ruling class who were primarily concerned with the emergence of a new middle class and were worried about the effects of printed matter on their thought process. Theory says the state have absolute power to control any media for the benefits of people. These news organizations have the power to affect how much the public cares about a specific event, issue, or story through the development and dissemination of these agendas. For example, imagine that a large-scale political event takes place.
If any media violate the government policies against license, then the authority has all right to cancel the license and revoke it. This illustrates the connection between agenda setting and gatekeeping because one person or group can affect the messages that are conveyed to the audience. While the Development Support Communication Theory as this theory is otherwise called enables the media to undertake the role of carrying out positive developmental programmes, voluntarily accepting restrictions and instructions from the state, the media subordinate themselves to political, economic, social and cultural needs under this school of thought. Whilst trust ranged between 80 and 90 per cent in the mid-1990s, in recent polls the regional average has hovered around 50 per cent. Though the mass media is not under the direct control of the state and the ruling classes, it must do its abiding. In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. Media effects include theories that explain how the mass media influence the attitudes and perceptions of audience members.
The Authoritarian Theory has its origins in the authoritarian philosophy of Plato 407-327BCE. Here, the media cannot offend or go against the majority or dominant groups. It perceives the state as a major source of interference with the of an individual and his or her property. The Authoritarian Theory, the Libertarian Theory, the Soviet-Communist Theory, and the Social-Responsibility Theory are the four theories. Which theory the authoritarian leadership style goes with? Why does media act as a mirror to the society? Authoritarians are necessary to control the media to protect and prevent the people from the national threats through any form communication information or news. The four theories of the press according to Siebert, Peterson and Schramm are: Authoritarian Theory Developed in 17th century England, Soviet Communist Theory The Soviet Union expanded on the authoritarian theory and imposed even more restrictions on the press.
After reading this groundbreaking exposé, readers will never watch television the same way again. It asserts that someone can interact with a specific kind of media in an effort to improve their mood. What is the function of media of authoritarian Brainly? Kings used this approach in the past by granting royal charters and licenses. You should be able to comfortably attempt the above questions if you read and digest properly, all the theories of mass communication as explained above. For instance, if a group wants to increase public awareness of a social issue, they might develop a television program that combines entertainment and education.
Different Media Theories Used in Mass Communication
In government, authoritarianism denotes any political system that concentrates power in the hands of a leader or a small elite that is not constitutionally responsible to the body of the people. It is believed that state information, when distributed, might put security at risk and cause to be a national threat. Recommended: Top 10 Richest Ibo Men In Nigeria: Biography and Net Worth 2022 It does seem that both dictatorial and democratic governments all over the world usually devise means to gag or control the media. It is strongly opposed to the commercialization of modern media and their top-down non-participant character. Furthermore, editors may choose to place the story on the front page, which could give the audience the impression that it is extremely important. The Structural and Functional Theories perceive the social structures as real and as functions in ways that can be seen and observed objectively.
Entertainment education A mass communication strategy called entertainment education involves the conception and production of specific media. Although elements of libertarianism can be traced as far back as the ancient Chinese philosopher Lao-Tzu and the higher-law concepts of the Greeks and the Israelites, it was in 17th-century England that libertarian ideas began to take modern form in the writings of the Levellers and John Locke. Normative theories are different from other communication theories because they are not based on scientific explanations and predictions. This Theory developed when people began to identify that there is some kind of influence is made to the listeners. The press and other media are expected to respect authority. Eight theories of mass communication are listed below. Based on the following criteria, researchers may categorize some media as richer than others: 8.
Less need to develop complex structures, procedures, and laws, steamlined and efficient, special interest groups can't block state action, strong leader can collect taxes and rally nation for defense. According to them, pure Libertarianism is antiquated, outdated and obsolete. Milton in Aeropagitica 1644 , referred to it as a self-righting process if free expression is permitted. Sensitive issues are mostly not published or are published through press releases. The theory, known as Libertarian Theory Social Responsibility Theory Under libertarian theory, the press belongs to the public and in a capitalist society, this presents a major drawback.