Do footnotes go before or after punctuation. Do footnote numbers go inside or outside punctuation? 2022-10-03

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In the world of academic writing and publishing, the placement of footnotes can be a source of confusion for writers. The question of whether footnotes go before or after punctuation is a common one, and the answer depends on the specific style guide that you are using.

In general, footnotes are placed at the end of a sentence, after any punctuation marks that may be present. This is true for most style guides, including the Chicago Manual of Style, the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, and the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, footnotes should be placed at the end of a sentence, after any punctuation marks, with the exception of a dash or closing quotation marks. In these cases, the footnote should be placed before the punctuation mark. For example:

"This is a quote that I am using in my paper -1"

In this sentence, the footnote appears before the dash because the dash is part of the quote and not the main sentence.

It is worth noting that there are some variations in the placement of footnotes depending on the specific style guide you are using. The MLA style, for example, recommends placing footnotes at the end of a clause, rather than at the end of a sentence. This means that if you are using the MLA style, you may place the footnote before the punctuation mark if the punctuation mark is part of a clause rather than a sentence.

Overall, the placement of footnotes is a matter of style and preference, and it is important to follow the guidelines of the specific style guide that you are using. In general, however, footnotes should be placed at the end of a sentence, after any punctuation marks, unless there is a specific exception in the style guide.

Do Footnotes Go Inside Quotations?

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

Footnote or endnote numbers in the text should follow punctuation, and preferably be placed at the end of a sentence. Olaf Press, 2010 , 115. The superscript number will be automatically inserted into the text. If a footnote must run over onto a new page, break it in midsentence so that readers do not think they have read the entire note. It is important to provide detailed information for each source, including who, what, when, where, and why.

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Can You Put A Reference In The Middle Of A Sentence?

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

What is difference between footnote and endnote? When a footnote must be placed at the end of a sentence, add the number after the period. Where do you put superscript references? These can be referred to by number or by name. Following these basic steps, Microsoft Word makes inserting footnotes a breeze. I've never seen a style manual that says it matters "whether the footnote applies to just one gloss, or to an entire phrase". Superscript numbers are placed after quotation marks, commas and periods.

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Do footnote numbers go inside or outside punctuation?

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

Olaf Press, 2010 , 115; Mary Beth Miller, The wiki Revolution New York: New Tech Press, 2018 , 48. The APA referencing style is an "author-date" style, so the citation in the text consists of the author s and the year of publication given wholly or partly in round brackets. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Do you need a bibliography If you have footnotes? Word inserts a reference mark in the text and adds the footnote mark at the bottom of the page. Can you have two footnotes one sentence? This is done when referring to the sentence and providing a source for the information. Can I use footnotes in Harvard referencing? To create a Chicago footnote or endnote reference, a superscript number is placed at the end of the clause or sentence that the citation applies to, after any punctuation periods, quotation marks, parentheses. Does an asterisk go inside a comma? How do you do footnotes correctly? Can you use two footnotes in one sentence? Use a short line or rule to separate footnotes from the main text.


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Do footnote numbers go before or after punctuation?

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

However, if the punctuation mark is a dash i. A reference mark in the document corresponds to a number or symbol on the footnote or endnote. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a sentence, add the number after the period. Footnote or endnote numbers in the text should follow punctuation, and preferably be placed at the end of a sentence.

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4 Ways to Do Footnotes

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

Because the publisher is not a scholarly press and because it deals with institutional rather than individual academic authors, it can dictate this sort of intervention without prompting an author rebellion, but I don't recommend this approach for most situations. How is a footnote supposed to look? How do you do footnote references? Though a note number normally follows a closing parenthesis, it may on rare occasions be more appropriate to place the number inside the closing parenthesisā€”if, for example, the note applies to a specific term within the parentheses. As with cases, there are two short form options for statutes: Id. This article has been viewed 1,350,167 times. Click Modify, and then change the formatting options font, size, and so on. Where does the footnote number go? He said, "I may forget your name, but I never forget a face. In German footnote signs have no brackets, so you will only find a superscript number or a sign like dagger etc.

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Should Footnote Markers Go After the Punctuation?

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

Provide details and share your research! When doing footnotes, do you put a footnote after every sentence, even if two or more consecutive sentences are from the same source and same page? First, if you happen to be writing in a specialist field in which the asterisk is used for other purposes as it is in mathematics and linguistics , then your reader may not immediately recognize what the asterisk is doing. From Hodges' Harbrace Handbook, revised thirteenth edition 1998 : Both footnotes and endnotes require that a superscript number be placed wherever documentation is necessary. Thus placed, the reference does not distract the attention of the reader as it would elsewhere. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a clause, 1 add the number after the comma. Where do you put footnotes? Put commas and periods within quotation marks, except when a parenthetical reference follows. A footnote should be as brief as possible, and here alone it is preferable to make liberal use of readily identifiable abbreviations, including those Footnotes at the bottom of the page must be set off in some way from the main text. For example: "Jane said that Mary was 'the girl with the red shoes.


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[SOLVED] Do footnoting superscripts go inside or outside punctuation? ~ English Language & Usage ~ childhealthpolicy.vumc.org

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

The last example provides nothing but the birth and death dates of someone mentioned in the text. Typically, you would use the additional source to establish the relative reliability of the source you cited. Can you reference after a comma? In case you are using notes for reference, then using numbers is probably the best option. The final period or comma goes inside the quotation marks, even if it is not a part of the quoted material, unless the quotation is followed by a citation. A lot depends on what style manual you follow. Footnotes are always placed after punctuation when referring to a whole sentence or quotation in your writing.

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writing style

do footnotes go before or after punctuation

It hangs below its letter or number. Where Should You Place Footnote Markers? A numeral is placed in the text to indicate the cited work and again at the bottom of the page in front of the footnote. Later citations include the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number where the material you quoted or paraphrased can be found. Does punctuation ever go outside quotes? Why do we use footnotes? Some people like to have them at the end of sentences while others may prefer to have them at the beginning of paragraphs. Do footnotes go before or after punctuation? Please keep in mind that the footnote sign has to follow the word or sentence without a blank directly. The only time they would come before a comma is if the footnote refers to one word rather than most of the sentence.


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