Theories of emotion. Evolutionary Theory of Emotions 2022-10-09
Theories of emotion Rating:
Emotions are complex psychological and physiological responses to stimuli that can range from positive (e.g., joy, love) to negative (e.g., anger, fear). These responses involve various cognitive, behavioral, and physiological processes that can influence how we think, feel, and behave. Throughout history, there have been numerous theories proposed to understand the nature and function of emotions.
One early theory of emotion is the James-Lange theory, which suggests that emotions are the result of physiological arousal. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus that evokes an emotional response, our bodies experience physiological changes (e.g., increased heart rate, sweating) that are then interpreted by our brains as a particular emotion. For example, if we see a snake, our bodies might experience an increase in heart rate and sweating, which our brains interpret as fear.
Another theory of emotion is the Cannon-Bard theory, which suggests that emotions and physiological arousal occur simultaneously. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, the brain processes the stimulus and simultaneously sends signals to the body to experience the corresponding physiological arousal and to the brain to experience the emotional response. This theory challenges the James-Lange theory by suggesting that emotions are not simply the result of physiological arousal, but rather are a combination of cognitive and physiological processes.
A more recent theory of emotion is the Schachter-Singer theory, also known as the two-factor theory. This theory suggests that emotions are the result of both physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, our bodies experience physiological arousal, but we do not experience a specific emotion until we cognitively interpret that arousal. For example, if we see a snake and experience increased heart rate and sweating, we might interpret that arousal as fear if we are in a situation where a snake would be dangerous, or as excitement if we are at a zoo and know the snake is behind glass.
Another theory of emotion is the cognitive appraisal theory, which suggests that emotions are the result of our cognitive evaluation of a situation. According to this theory, when we encounter a stimulus, we cognitively appraise the situation and then experience the corresponding emotion based on our evaluation. For example, if we see a snake and evaluate the situation as dangerous, we might experience fear. If we see a snake at a zoo and evaluate the situation as safe, we might experience curiosity or interest.
Overall, these theories of emotion highlight the complexity of emotions and the various cognitive and physiological processes that contribute to our emotional responses. While each theory offers a unique perspective on the nature and function of emotions, it is likely that emotions involve a combination of these processes and may vary depending on the individual and the specific emotion being experienced.
Emotion, Theories of
The study's objective was to ascertain the participants' emotional response to the confederates' behaviours. A second response is to be more specific about the nature of the judgment itself. Cannon-Bard Theory: Walter B Cannon and Philip Bard proposed a new theory, on the basis of their findings by conducting operations on various parts of brain, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. These basic emotions can be combined to form different feelings, much like colors can be mixed to create other shades. Motivational state appetitive, aversive , situational state motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent , likelihood certain, uncertain, unknown , power strong, weak , and agency are the assessment components and the various values that each component can take self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused. Gut reactions: A perceptual theory of emotion. Aldao and Dixon 2014 studied the relationship between overt emotional regulation strategies and psychopathology.
The prospects for an evolutionary psychology: Human language and human reasoning. It is also important to note that, although these theories claim that emotion is a cognitive process, they do not claim that it is a conscious or a deliberative process. Knowledge and passion: Ilongot notions of self and social life. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 12, 272—283. However, social norms and expectations dictate that pouting in this situation would not be an appropriate response.
Alternatively, a person might have been thrilled to lose her work as a young woman but years later find it terrifying. Read more Navigate Down Speech emotion recognition: Emotional models, databases, features, preprocessing methods, supporting modalities, and classifiers Mehmet Berkehan Akçay, Kaya Oğuz, in Speech Communication, 2020 3Emotions To successfully implement a speech emotion recognition system, we need to define and model emotion carefully. Dimensional emotional model is an alternative model that uses a small number of latent dimensions to characterize emotions such as valence, arousal, control, power Russell and Mehrabian, 1977; Watson et al. J: Princeton University Press. The primary thought in this theory is the idea that emotions occurs as a result of reaction to events, which is majorly psychological. Emotions typically occur in social settings and during interpersonal transactions—many, if not most, emotions are caused by other people and social relationships. Author Information Gregory Johnson Email: Drexel University U.
Theories of Emotion: Expressing, Feeling, Acting: Pia Campeggiani: Bloomsbury Academic
Griffiths defends the view that the vernacular term emotion does not pick out a single psychological class. Interestingly, Soussignan 2002 also reported physiological arousal differences associated with the intensities of one type of smile. For instance, when one sees a lion in the woods the emotional reaction will be determined by the way in which what is seen is interpreted. In psychology, emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behaviour. Thus, the theory states that individuals identify their emotions based on their observations of the environment and their comparisons to others. Strong emotions can cause you to take actions you might not normally perform or to avoid situations you enjoy.
The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, as we mentioned earlier, many emotion theorists emphasize that the role of the face in emotional expression makes it an important source of data about emotion and affect, whether through coding systems of overt facial activity e. However, despite simulating emotion from the perspective of probability, HMM does not consider the cognitive and non-cognitive factors generated by emotion, which leads to the determination of the perception result state for the same stimulus. The theories discussed in this section have varied in the importance that they place on the bodily changes that typically during the emotion process. For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and see a grizzly bear.
As noted in section one, Griffiths identifies this class of emotions, the affect programs, historically. The transitory social roles are rule governed ways of performing a social role, and so individuals adopt a role that is consistent with what a given situation calls for. For instance, the third dimension differentiates anger from fear by considering the strength or weakness of the person, respectively Grimm et al. In HMM, the transfer probability is used to describe the mutual transfer of emotional states, so that a most likely emotional state is realised. Adrenaline causes your heart to race and pump more blood to your muscles. In the discrete approach, prototypical representations are more easily assimilated and therefore are more useful for rapid database construction and as a starting point for emerging research in this research field.
According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, our emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. Suppose you are walking in the woods, and you see a grizzly bear. Examples are embarrassment, guilt, shame, jealousy, envy, elevation, empathy, and pride. Virtually everyone who defends this position acknowledges that emotions are to some degree, natural phenomena. Non-cognitive theories are those that defend the claim that judgments or appraisals are not part of the emotion process. The cognitive theories contend that the early part of the emotion process includes the manipulation of information and so should be understood as a cognitive process. In the dimensional approach, emotions are not independent of each other; instead, they are analogous to each other in a systematic way.
Griffiths also suggests that there is a separate affect program for each of several emotions: surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and joy 1997, p. The various sorts of assessments implicated in the emotion process are also more thoroughly examined by cognitive appraisal theories. If the individual focuses on the friend who has just given the gift focuses on another person , the emotion is liking. This review paper is made of two main parts. In other words, physiological arousal is interpreted in context to produce the emotional experience. Loss of something to which one is intimately attached might be a common characteristic of sadness elicitors. Most of the theories that will be considered in this section focus on the early part of the emotion process because—according to these theories—the specific emotion that occurs is determined during this part of the process.