Chemistry of hair. Shampoo and the chemistry of hair care 2022-10-09
Chemistry of hair Rating:
Hair is an important part of the human body that serves several functions, including protecting the scalp, regulating body temperature, and serving as a means of communication and self-expression. While it may seem like a simple and superficial aspect of our anatomy, the chemistry behind hair is actually quite complex and involves a number of different chemical processes.
At the most basic level, hair is made up of a protein called keratin, which is also found in nails and skin. Keratin is a long chain of amino acids that are held together by peptide bonds. The structure of these bonds gives keratin its strength and resilience, making it an ideal material for hair and nails.
The hair shaft, which is the visible part of the hair, is made up of three layers: the cuticle, the cortex, and the medulla. The cuticle is the outermost layer and is made up of overlapping scales that protect the hair shaft from damage. The cortex is the middle layer and is responsible for the hair's strength, elasticity, and color. It contains the pigment melanin, which gives hair its color. The medulla is the innermost layer and is present in thicker hair shafts. It is not always present and its function is not fully understood.
The hair follicle, which is the structure that grows hair, is located beneath the surface of the skin. It is made up of a number of different cell types, including keratinocytes, which produce keratin, and melanocytes, which produce melanin. The hair follicle also contains sebaceous glands, which produce an oily substance called sebum that helps to moisturize and protect the hair.
In addition to the chemical components of hair, there are also a number of chemical processes that take place in the hair and scalp. One important process is the production of sebum, which helps to keep the hair and scalp moisturized. Sebum is produced by the sebaceous glands and is made up of a mix of lipids, including triglycerides, wax esters, and squalene.
Another important chemical process in the hair is the breakdown of keratin by enzymes called proteases. These enzymes break down the peptide bonds in keratin, which can lead to the hair becoming damaged and brittle. This process can be exacerbated by external factors such as heat and chemical treatments, which can weaken the hair shaft and make it more prone to damage.
There are also a number of chemical treatments that can be used to alter the appearance and condition of hair. One common treatment is the use of hair dyes, which work by depositing pigment onto the hair shaft. The most common type of hair dye is permanent dye, which contains chemicals called aminophenols and resorcinol that react with the melanin in the hair to produce a new color. Semi-permanent dyes, on the other hand, do not contain these chemicals and instead work by coating the hair shaft with pigment.
Other chemical treatments include hair relaxers, which use chemicals such as sodium hydroxide to break down the protein structure of the hair and make it more pliable, and hair straighteners, which use heat and chemicals to break down the bonds in the hair and make it straight. These treatments can be effective at changing the appearance of hair, but they can also be damaging if not used properly.
In conclusion, the chemistry of hair is a complex and fascinating subject that involves a number of different chemical processes and substances. From the production of keratin and melanin to the use of chemical treatments, the chemistry of hair plays a vital role in its appearance, strength, and overall health.
The Science of Hair: What's going on?
The labels show cuticle cells Cu , cortical cells Co , the medulla Md , and a microfibril MF within a cortical cell. Subcutaneous adipose tissue also absorbs the forces made by any impact to the skin, which protects deeper structures, and serves as a storage area for fat. Approximately one million of those are on the head and 100,000 are on the scalp. Boyce is exploring silk protein products specifically as a solution for women going through chemotherapy, a treatment that thins the hair. Some dyes are temporary.
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Equipped with an understanding of the underlying chemistry of hair, Boyce reached out to several chemical and pharmaceutical companies for samples of compounds he needed. Quantifying these is extremely complex given that they are mostly derived from sebum. Does a different concentration of peroxide affect the condition of the hair? Part a shows a cutaway cartoon of a single hair shaft. But if you have natural curl to your hair that you like, you just want to get rid of frizz, then a keratin straightening treatment is going to be disappointing. Unlike male hair loss, female hair loss in the affected areas is usually incomplete and the occipital area is generally spared.
That determines its color. Aside from that, and the fleeting thought that it smells of cat pee when I am using it, I have never really given much thought to the chemical makeup of hair dye. Threonine, arginine and glycine are instead present in smaller percentages approximately 6%. Fringe benefits: investigating shampoos Summary Students imagine they are working in a customer care team for a hair research organisation. You would think that it would be the most solid, core part of the hair. These dyes contain large pigment molecules that coat the surface of the hair strand. Some people have discovered that they have a difficult time growing out their hair beyond a certain point due to having a short anagen phase.
The hair bulb encapsulates the hair matrix, the hair papilla, the inner root sheath, and the outer root sheath. A new hair forms and pushes the club hair up and out of the follicle. Now that you know what exactly it is made of, it is time to learn about the layers of hair. . The hair on our bodies has a particular structure and is divided into thin and thick hair. When printing this document, you may NOT modify it in any way.
You may need to go to a few beauty salons to find enough swatches. Hair is not complicated in terms of its structure and what it is composed of, but it plays an important role in social functioning. But what really is this thing that we spend so much time and effort on? There is hair on practically every surface of the human body. A "20 volume" solution is equivalent to 6% hydrogen peroxide, etc. Breaking Down The Shaft of the Hair Follicle The main function of the hair follicle is to produce a fiber known as the hair shaft.
Scalp pain and irritation or trichodynia are pathological conditions that affect both women in a greater percentage and men in a lower percentage. For any other use, please contact Science Buddies. Although the presence of androgens is critical for the genetic predisposition to be conveyed, age is equally influential. They also have many more color options than you can get with most other hair colors. If contact occurs, immediately flush with lukewarm water. The ultimate answer to your hair loss. No one is born with technicolor tresses—shifting shades requires hair dye.
The cuticle consists of dead cells atop transparent plates that reflect light and give hair that "shine. It contains smaller pigment molecules, explains Trina Espinoza. This amino acid tends to bond with negatively formed compounds in hair care products, making hair care products a true chemistry experiment. It produces the actual hair shaft as well as the inner and outer root sheaths of hair. Each chemically lightened swatch should be treated using a different developer volume. On the outside we find the cuticle consisting of a single layer of transparent thin cells, with a thickness between 0. Other substances that have been used for dyeing hair or wigs are rock alum, black sulfur, and honey.
Saturate the swatch with the mixture. Rediscover yourself, with naturally thick hair. The blood stream drops off nutrients in the bulb of the hair, which is turned into keratinocytes. It has a molecular weight of around 45,000 and is insoluble in water. Broken Down I know that information is extremely overwhelming and scary the first time you read it.
Content Background: The chemistry of hair and hair color
For example, when light hits white or blond hair, which contain little melanin, almost all of the light is reflected, and this reflected light contains all parts of the visible spectrum. The cortex contains a pigment known as melanin, which is also present in the skin. Another factor to consider is that different ethnic groups also have varying susceptible levels of pattern baldness: Statistics show that roughly 30 percent of caucasian men in their 30s are affected by pattern baldness, as are 40 percent in their 40s, and so on to the point that 80 percent of caucaisian men are affected by the time they are 80 or older. It consists mainly of areolar connective tissue loose connective tissue and adipose tissue fat storage. The COOH groups tend to lose the H atom leaving them with a negative charge.
The new color will remain until the hair grows out. The medulla is the innermost part of the hair which is only found in thick, large hair. Definitions: 1 the pigment found in hair, skin, feathers, etc. After literally cutting knots out of her hair several times, Boyce decided it was time to do something. That being said, The biological workings of this are not fully understood at this time, but it is known that the susceptibility of hair loss and baldness does increase with age.